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Botulinum toxin injections present promise to suppress postoperative atrial fibrillation

Posted in News on 1st December 2018

Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a standard complication, affecting one quarter to at least one half of all sufferers following cardiac surgical procedure. It may end up in coronary heart failure, stroke, and longer hospital stays, leading to an elevated value of care. HeartRhythm, the official journal of the Coronary heart Rhythm Society and the Cardiac Electrophysiology Society, studies promising outcomes from two medical trials utilizing botulinum toxin (BTX) injections to suppress POAF.

BTX, a potent inhibitor of neural transmission, is finest identified for its use in briefly lowering facial wrinkles. The worldwide beauty marketplace for BTX was estimated at US $ three.four billion in 2015. Additionally it is used to deal with some neurological problems together with extreme sweating and eye muscle problems.

In a randomized placebo-controlled longitudinal research of 60 sufferers present process coronary artery bypass graft surgical procedure, sufferers who obtained BTX injections throughout surgical procedure confirmed a sustained discount within the incidence and total burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) over three years of follow-up, accompanied by a diminished want for hospitalization. BTX was injected into every of the epicardial fats pads close to every pulmonary vein.

Senior investigator Jonathan S. Steinberg, MD, of the Coronary heart Analysis Comply with-up Program, College of Rochester College of Drugs & Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA, explains, “This research examined the speculation that interruption of cardiac neural site visitors by BTX may undermine the pathologic processes that promote AF after cardiac surgical procedure. In two earlier publications, the research group has proven important reductions in early postoperative AF as much as 30 days, but additionally sustained discount of AF out to at least one yr.”

Within the present research, AF occasions have been captured by implantable cardiac displays in all sufferers. The incidence of AF was diminished by 64 % in sufferers who obtained BTX. Additional, the general burden of AF was diminished five- to nine-fold in annually of follow-up. Over three years, the variety of sufferers who required hospitalization for AF, the whole variety of hospitalizations, and the necessity for drug therapies or extra procedures have been all diminished within the BTX group.

“The outcomes of our research counsel a brand new method to remedy of AF,” says Dr. Steinberg. “The sustained discount of AF, now demonstrated over three years, was notable and a little bit of a shock. We imagine that autonomic transforming was interrupted and the predisposition to AF was reset because of BTX injection.” The BTX idea may be examined in non-postoperative sufferers in future research, extending the remedy paradigm of neuromodulation as a stand-alone or supplemental antiarrhythmic technique, which can probably be relevant to the numerous different medical contexts during which AF seems.

In response to Dr. Steinberg, that is probably an necessary and impactful breakthrough if confirmed in bigger trials. If postoperative AF is diminished, there could also be important discount within the utilization of well being care assets, an necessary objective for healthcare programs underneath stress due to excessive prices. There may additionally be long-term medical and monetary advantages.

Within the second trial reported on this subject, Nathan H. Waldron, MD, MHS, of the Division of Anesthesiology, and colleagues at Duke College, Durham, NC, USA, randomized 130 sufferers to obtain an injection of both 250 models of botulinum toxin kind A (BoNTA) or saline in epicardial fats pads containing autonomic ganglia after the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass, however earlier than the surgical process. They assessed the incidence of POAF with steady telemetry throughout postoperative hospitalization. There was no enhance in issues after cardiac surgical procedure, however the process didn’t lead to a statistically important discount within the danger of POAF. The investigators take into account this can be resulting from insufficient energy to detect a modest, however clinically significant, influence of BoNTA.

“Whereas we didn’t observe a statistically important discount within the incidence of POAF, sufferers receiving epicardial botulinum toxin had shorter preliminary episodes of POAF and a pattern towards much less hemodynamically important POAF,” notes Dr. Waldron.

“The sufferers handled with toxin had an 11 % decrease danger of post-operative AF that didn’t meet statistical significance, so a bigger, adequately powered trial is one thing that’s wanted to supply a clearer image,” provides senior creator Jonathan P. Piccini, MD, a member of the Duke Scientific Analysis Institute (DCRI), Durham, North Carolina, USA.

In an accompanying editorial, Joris R. de Groot, MD, PhD, of the Division of Cardiology, Coronary heart Middle, Amsterdam College Medical Facilities, College of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, examines the completely different outcomes of the 2 research and factors out some key variations. For instance, the primary research included solely coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) sufferers, whereas the second research additionally included sufferers present process valve or mixed surgical procedure. The atrial sizes have been additionally completely different between these research.

“Research with botulinum toxin kind A injection into the ganglion plexi stay confined to sufferers present process open-chest surgical procedure, and a bigger scale medical trial with botulinum injection into the ganglion plexi in CABG sufferers is on the way in which,” Dr. de Groot feedback. “For AF remedy or suppression in sufferers not present process thoracotomy, nonthermal ablation seems a promising method that proved tissue-specific, and deserves additional medical investigation.”

Supply:

https://www.elsevier.com/

FDA: Critical Aspect Impact of AML Drug Not Being Acknowledged

Posted in News on 1st December 2018

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New ointment for treating brown recluse spider bites is examined on people

Posted in News on 30th November 2018

The chew from a brown recluse spider (Loxosceles) may cause pores and skin necrosis, renal failure, and even demise. A brand new ointment is being examined in Brazil, nevertheless. Its results have already been confirmed in exams performed in cell cultures and animal fashions. Now the ointment could have its immunomodulatory motion examined on people in Part III scientific trials, and it might be included within the remedy protocol for sufferers who develop lesions brought on by the spider chew. The trial has began in October.

“There was intensive analysis into the motion of the venom earlier than growth of the ointment. We had been capable of isolate and sequence a very powerful protein of the brown recluse spider venom for the primary time 20 years in the past. That allowed us to review the venom molecular motion mechanisms and develop inhibitors, now patented, that can be utilized in research of construction and performance, and probably as remedy,” stated Denise Tambourgi researcher on the Butantan Institute, in a chat given at São Paulo Analysis Basis – FAPESP Week New York/.

The assembly, held on the Metropolis College of New York (CUNY) November 26-28, 2018, includes Brazilian and U.S. researchers with the goal of strengthening analysis partnerships.

Scientific trials to confirm the motion of the ointment have simply begun in Santa Catarina – a Brazilian state with a excessive incidence of brown recluse spider bites. “Scientific trials shall be performed on 240 individuals. Of this complete, 120 will obtain a placebo and the opposite 120 shall be handled with the ointment. That may allow us to match the outcomes,” stated Tambourgi who can also be one of many principal investigators on the Heart for Analysis on Toxins, Immune-Response and Cell Signaling – CeTICS, one of many FAPESP-funded Analysis, Innovation and Dissemination Facilities – RIDCs.

Tetracycline, a substance used as an antibiotic, types the premise of the ointment. “We utilized a focus decrease than a microbicide, however at a dosage capable of modulate the exercise of the protease that’s concerned within the means of tissue irritation and destruction. Since tetracycline has already been examined in a number of scientific trials, it didn’t need to bear tolerance phases (phases I and II). In actual fact, we’re giving the substance a brand new use,” she stated.

Cutaneous impact, systemic impact

Along with inflicting cutaneous lesions – which might take months to heal – in some instances, the chew of a brown recluse spider additionally causes systemic results reminiscent of hemolysis, platelet aggregation, renal irritation and failure that can lead to affected person demise.

There have been stories of accidents involving Loxosceles in South, Central, and North America. In recent times, nevertheless, instances of brown recluse spider bites have additionally occurred in Europe, with stories of instances in international locations reminiscent of Spain, France, Portugal and Italy, a rustic that registered one case of deadly loxoscelism.

Based on the Brazilian Ministry of Well being’s Nationwide Illness Notification System – SINAN in 2016, there have been 173,630 instances of accidents with venomous animals in Brazil, 7,441 of which had been as a result of brown recluse spider bites.

Cutaneous loxoscelism happens in practically 80% of the instances. Much less frequent however rather more harmful are the systemic results that have an effect on practically 20% of sufferers bitten by the brown recluse spider.

As a result of the chew of the brown recluse spider is painless and response on the web site doesn’t seem instantly, victims solely search assist when the pores and skin lesion has already established itself. “Tissue necrosis is a outcome not simply of the venom, but in addition of the cascade of reactions by the physique itself, activated by the toxin’s important protein,” stated Tambourgi.

For years, the Butantan Institute has produced restricted portions of serum for brown recluse spider bites. “They’re small spiders, measuring three centimeters at most, from which we are able to extract little venom. We’d like a whole lot of specimens to supply the serum,” Tambourgi stated.

Secondary reactions

Research to find out the important thing parts of the brown recluse toxin have been performed since 1994. The group of researchers from the Butantan Institute inserted a spider gene into the bacterium Escherichia coli, thus making a biofabric of sphingomyelinase D (SMase D), the protein that’s the core part of the toxin.

“Throughout that total means of analysis, we found that the venom of the brown recluse spider may cause secondary reactions which are triggered primarily by the protein. I usually say that the toxin simply begins the method and that the protein alters the cells. Later, deregulation of the physique happens, resulting in the manufacturing of proteases – enzymes whose perform is to interrupt the peptide bonds of different proteins. These proteases are what the ointment has to inhibit,” she stated.

Due to this fact, the ointment acts on the so-called secondary impact. “In experimental fashions each in vitro utilizing human pores and skin cells in addition to in animal fashions, it was attainable to cut back the scale of the lesion by practically 80%,” she stated.

The research led by Tambourgi has decided the mechanism of motion of the venom launched by the brown recluse spider in addition to the systemic and cutaneous type of the illness. “We had been capable of develop the ointment by constructing the mechanism that results in the dermonecrotic lesion. Nonetheless, as a result of the poisoning is brought on by what the protein induces within the physique, we’re attacking the secondary results of the toxin. We’ve got to await the outcomes of the scientific trials, however I’m assured as a result of exams carried out in cell cultures and animal fashions have been very promising,” she stated.

Supply:

http://www.fapesp.br/en/

FDA: MS Drug Linked to Circumstances of Stroke, Blood Vessel Wall Tears

Posted in News on 30th November 2018
Most cases occurred within 1 day of receiving Lemtrada

Most cases occurred within 1 day of receiving Lemtrada

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a warning regarding rare cases of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and cervicocephalic arterial dissection in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) shortly after receiving Lemtrada (alemtuzumab; Sanofi Genzyme). Alemtuzumab, a monoclonal antibody, is also approved for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) under the brand name Campath (alemtuzumab; Sanofi Genzyme).

Sine the approval of Lemtrada in 2014, the Agency has identified 13 cases worldwide of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke or arterial dissection that occurred shortly after the patient received Lemtrada; 1 patient who suffered a hemorrhagic stroke died. Most cases (12/13) occurred within 1 day of receiving Lemtrada; 1 patient reported symptoms 3 days after starting treatment. While the etiology is unknown, the adverse events appear to have occurred within the same time frame as cytokine release syndrome, an inflammatory response associated with Lemtrada use. Reports of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage have also been documented in patients treated with Campath for B-cell CLL and other leukemias/lymphomas.

The prescribing information and Medication Guide for Lemtrada have been updated with a new warning to reflect these risks. In addition, the risk of stroke has been added to the existing Boxed Warning. The Campath drug labeling has also been updated to include these risks in the Adverse Reactions section under Postmarketing Experience.

Healthcare professionals should advise patients at each infusion to seek medical attention if they experience symptoms of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or cervicocephalic arterial dissection. Patients who complain of symptoms suggestive of these conditions should be promptly evaluated.

New antibody can scale back swelling assaults in sufferers with hereditary angioedema

Posted in News on 29th November 2018

Sufferers with hereditary angioedema expertise recurrent and generally life-threatening swelling assaults. Researchers from Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin have examined an antibody able to lowering the frequency of those swelling assaults by greater than 90 p.c. Outcomes from their part three trial had been revealed yesterday in JAMA, the famend Journal of the American Medical Affiliation.

Hereditary angioedema is a uncommon genetic illness characterised by painful swellings affecting the pores and skin, mucous membranes and inner organs. Assaults happen spontaneously and often final for a number of days. Swelling of the higher airways together with the throat and tongue could cause loss of life by asphyxiation. In severely affected sufferers, therapy often entails prophylactic remedy geared toward lowering the chance of life-threatening swelling. Up to now, therapies accessible for this objective usually produced extreme unwanted side effects, required a number of injections per week, or had been of restricted efficacy.

Charité-based researchers have now been in a position to present that lanadelumab, a brand new monoclonal antibody therapy, is able to lowering the frequency of swelling assaults by greater than 90 p.c. Given each two weeks by subcutaneous injection, the therapy could be self-administered by the affected person utilizing an injection pen. “This new antibody is the simplest therapy at present accessible for the prevention of swellings in sufferers with hereditary angioedema,” explains Prof. Dr. Marcus Maurer, Analysis Director of Charité’s Division of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology and senior creator of the examine. “It is going to additionally come as an awesome aid to sufferers that this medication solely must be injected as soon as each two weeks,” he provides.

As a part of their worldwide part three trial, 125 sufferers aged 12 years or older obtained completely different dose regimens of lanadelumab or placebo for a length of 26 weeks. At the simplest dose, the antibody-based therapy lowered the month-to-month assault charge from three.5 to zero.26. Based mostly on the outcomes of this trial, the European Medicines Company’s Committee for Medicinal Merchandise for Human Use really helpful in October that lanadelumab be licensed to be used within the prevention of recurrent assaults of hereditary angioedema in sufferers aged 12 years and older. “This suggestion will inform the European Fee’s determination on a advertising authorization, which is anticipated later this 12 months,” says Prof. Maurer.

Lanadelumab is an antibody that targets a protein within the physique known as kallikrein. Within the bloodstream, kallikrein produces bradykinin, a tissue hormone that causes fluids to leak from blood vessels into tissues, inflicting swelling. In folks with hereditary angioedema, genetic modifications end in an overactivation of the kallikrein system. Lanadelumab binds kallikrein, thereby inhibiting the manufacturing of bradykinin and stopping the swelling assaults sometimes related to the illness.

Supply:

https://www.charite.de/en/service/press_reports/artikel/element/a_new_drug_to_prevent_life_threatening_swelling_attacks/

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